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Sources represent the interaction of a systems with its environment. There are two types of source elements: effort sources (Se) and flow sources (Sf).


In the table below the effort and flow description of the source elements is shown. Examples of a flow source are an electrical current source and a hydraulic pump that generates a constant flow of liquid. Examples of an effort source are an electrical voltage source and a constant mechanical force.



bond graph element


effort source


e = c, f = free

flow source


f = c, e = free


The direction of effort and flow for sources are restricted. In other words: the Se-element (effort-out) and Sf-element (effort-in) have a fixed causality.