Modulated Sources

Navigation:  Modeling Tutorial > Bond Graphs > Standard Elements >

Modulated Sources

Previous pageReturn to chapter overviewNext page

Next to the standard effort and flow sources, that generate a constant effort and flow, bond graph modeling also allows the use of so called modulated sources. In these sources the resulting effort or flow are equal to a (fluctuating) value provided by an input signal. Two types of modulated sources are know: the modulated effort source MSe and the modulated flow source MSf. In the table below the effort and flow description of the source elements is shown.



bond graph element


modulated effort source


e = u, f = free

modulated flow source


f = u, e = free


The direction of effort and flow for sources are restricted. In other words: the MSe-element (effort-out) and MSf-element (effort-in) have a fixed causality.