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Sources

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Sources

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Sources represent the interaction of a systems with its environment. There are two types of source elements: effort sources (Se) and flow sources (Sf).

 

In the table below the effort and flow description of the source elements is shown. Examples of a flow source are an electrical current source and a hydraulic pump that generates a constant flow of liquid. Examples of an effort source are an electrical voltage source and a constant mechanical force.

 

element

bond graph element

equation

effort source

SeElement

e = c, f = free

flow source

SfElement

f = c, e = free

 

The direction of effort and flow for sources are restricted. In other words: the Se-element (effort-out) and Sf-element (effort-in) have a fixed causality.